Contents
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1. Characteristics of a chemical reaction

Evidence of chemical reactions

Color changes

Evolution of gas

Formation of an insoluble compound

Generation of light

Nitrogen triiodide, sound effect

Release of heat

Absorption of heat


2. Separation of mixtures

Filtration

Vacuum filtration

Separation of immiscible liquids

Sublimation

Distillation

Centrifugation

Chemical purification of gases

Chromatography


3. Solutions, pH

Effect of stirring on the speed of dissolution

Temperature dependence of salt solubility

Supersaturated solution

Microcrystallisation

Solubility of gas in liquids

Color scale of the universal indicator

Strong and weak acids and bases

pH in consumer goods

pH of salt solutions, hydrolysis

Blue bottle reaction

Magical color hanges

Reaction of basic oxide and water


4. Rate of reaction, equilibrium

Effect of concentration on reaction rate

Dependence of reaction rate on reactants

Effect of temperature on reaction rate

Effect of temperature on chemical equilibrium

Effect of contact area on reaction rate

Chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst


5. Nonmetals

5.1. Oxygen

Preparation of oxygen

Combustion of coal in air and oxygen

Combustion of sulfur in air and oxygen

Hydrogen sulfide

Combustion of red phosphorus

Combustion of coal in potassium nitrate

Fire as a painter

Combustion of sulfur in potassium nitrate

Combustion in potassium chlorate

Combustion of white phosphorus


5.2. Hydrogen

Lightness of hydrogen

Hydrogen from metal and acid

Hydrogen from metal and alkali

Hydrogen from hydride

Explosions of hydrogen

Reduction of copper(II) oxide

Electrolysis of water


5.3. Carbon dioxide

CO2 as a heavier than air gas

CO2 from basic copper carbonate

CO2 from Kipp`s apparatus

Carbon dioxide in exhaled air

Carbon dioxide from a vitamin pill

Reaction of CO2 and alkali

pH change upon dissolution of CO2

Solid carbon dioxide

Combustion of magnesium in carbon dioxide


5.4. Nitrogen and ammonia

Nitrogen as fire extinguisher

Dissolution of ammonia in water

pH change upon the dissolution of NH3

Reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride


5.5. Chlorine

Preparation of chlorine

Reaction of chlorine and iodide

Photochemical reaction: Cl2 + H2

Combustion of sodium in chlorine

Reaction of chlorine and copper

Combustion of antimony in chlorine

Reaction of chlorine and iron

Preparation of hydrogen chloride

Ignition of phosphorus in chlorine



6.2. p,d-metals

Combustion of iron powder in air

Pyrophoric iron

Combustion of zinc powder in air

Aluminothermy

Reaction of aluminium and bromine

Reaction of iron and sulfur

Reactions of metals and iodine

Reactions of zinc with acids

Reaction of copper and nitric acid

Deposition of copper on iron

Deposition of mercury on copper


6.3. Flame tests of salts

Flame test of a sodium salt

Flame test of a potassium salt

Flame test of a cesium salt

Flame test of a lithium salt

Flame test of a barium salt

Flame test of a strontium salt

Flame test of a copper salt